Saturday, August 17, 2019
Physical education (often abbreviated Phys. Ed. or P. E. ) or gymnastics(gym or gym class) is a course taken during primary and secondary educationthat encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting. Physical education trends have developed recently to incorporate a greater variety of activities. Introducing students to activities like bowling, walking/hiking, or Frisbee at an early age can help students develop good activity habits that will carry over into adulthood. Some teachers have even begun to incorporate stress-reduction techniques such as yoga and deep-breathing.Teaching non-traditional sports to students may also provide the necessary motivation for students to increase their activity, and can help students learn about different cultures. For example, while teaching a unit about lacrosse (in, say, Arizona, USA), students can also learn a little bit about the Native American cultures of the Northeast and Eastern Canada, where lacrosse originated. Teaching non-traditional (or non-native) sports provides a great opportunity to integrate academic concepts from other subjects as well (social studies from the example above), which may now be required of many P.E. teachers. The four aspects of P. E. are physical, mental, social, and emotional. Another trend is the incorporation of Health and Nutrition to the physical education curriculum. The Child Nutrition and WIC Re-authorization Act of 2004 required that all school districts with a federally funded school meal program develop wellness policies that address nutrition and physical activity. While teaching students sports and movement skills, P. E. teachers are now incorporating short health and nutrition lessons into the curriculum.This is more prevalent at the elementary school level, where students do not have a specific Health class. Recently most elementary schools have specific health classes for students as well as physical education class. With the recent outbreaks of dis eases such as swine flu, school districts are making it mandatory for students to learn about practicing good hygiene along with other health topics. Today many states require Physical Education teachers to be certified to teach Health courses. Many colleges and Universities offer both Physical Education and Health as one certification.This push towards health education is beginning in the intermediate level, including lessons on bullying, self-esteem and stress and anger management. In the USA, the physical education curriculum is designed to allow school pupils a full range of modern opportunities, dozens of sports and hundreds of carefully reviewed drills and exercises, including exposure to the education with the use of pedometer, GPS, and heart rate monitors, as well as state-of-the-art exercise machines in the upper grades.Some martial arts classes, like wrestling in the United States, and Pencak Silat in France, Indonesia and Malaysia, are taught to teach children self-defens e and to feel good about themselves. The physical education curriculum is designed to allow students to experience at least a minimum exposure to the following categories of activities: aquatics, conditioning activities, gymnastics, individual/dual sports, team sports, rhythms, and dance. Students are encouraged to continue to explore those activities in which they have a primary interest by effectively managing their community resources.In these areas, a planned sequence of learning experiences is designed to support a progression of student development. This allows kids through 6th grade to be introduced to sports, fitness, and teamwork in order to be better prepared for the middle and high school age. In 1975, the United States House of Representatives voted to require school physical education classes include both genders. Some high school and some middle school PE classes are single-sex.Requiring individuals to participate in physical education activities, such as dodge ball, f lag football, and other competitive sports remains a controversial subject because of the social impact these have on young children. It is, however, important to note that many school budgets have seen cutbacks and in some cases physical education programs have been cut. Technology use in physical education New technology in Physical education is playing a big role in classes. One of the most affordable and effective would be a simple tape recorder.With the use of a tape recorder students can see the mistakes they're making in things such as a throwing motion or swinging form. Studies show that students do find this more effective than having someone just telling them what they are doing wrong and trying to correct it. Educators also found the use of other technologies such as pedometers and heart rate monitors very successful, using them to make step and heart rate goals for students. Other technologies that can be used in a Physical Education setting would include projectors, GPS and even gaming systems such as Kinect for XBOX360, Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution.Projectors can be used to show students things such as proper form or how to play certain games. GPS systems can be used to get students active in an outdoor setting and active exergames can be used by teachers to show students a good way to stay fit in and out of the classroom setting Another type of technology that is commonly used in Physical Education is the use of pedometers. Pedemeters do not necessarily track how far a person is going, but it lets them know the number of steps they are making. It will let them know how many steps on average they are making and want to strive to get more the next class. 1] There are many lessons that you can use for many grade levels when you are teaching students to use a pedometer it is important to make it a game, especially for younger students.  Worldwide In South Korea, it is mandatory for pupils to take 3 hours of PE through primary an d secondary schools. In Portugal, pupils from primary school could optionally join PE as an extra-curricular activity. From middle school to secondary school pupils must participate in PE classes 2 hours per week. In Singapore, pupils from primary school through junior colleges are required to have 2 hours of PE every week, except during examination seasons.Pupils are able to play games like football, badminton, captain's ball, and basketball during most sessions. Unorthodox sports such as touchball, fencing, and skateboarding are occasionally played. In more prestigious secondary schools and in junior colleges, sports such as golf, tennis, shooting, and squash are played. A compulsory fitness exam, NAPFA, is conducted in every school once every year to assess the physical fitness of the pupils. Pupils are given a series of fitness tests (Pull-ups/Inclined pull-ups for girls, standing broad jump, sit-ups, sit-and-reach and 1. km for primary [10-12 year-olds]/2. 4 km for secondary an d junior college levels [13-18 year-olds]). Students are graded by gold, silver, bronze or fail. NAPFA for pre-enlistees serves as an indicator for an additional 2 months in the country's compulsory national service if they attain bronze or fail. In Malaysia, pupils from primary schools to secondary schools are expected to do 2 periods or 1 hour of PE throughout the year except a week before examination. In most secondary schools, games like badminton, sepak takraw, football, basketball and tennis are available.Pupils are allowed to bring their own sports equipment to the school with the authorization of the teacher. In most secondary schools, physical exams are rarely done, schools record pupils' heights, weights and how many push-ups they can do. In Scotland, pupils are expected to do at least two periods of PE in first, second, third and fourth year. In fifth and sixth year, PE is voluntary.  Indonesian high school students are playing traditional game Ã¢â¬Å"Ben tengÃ¢â¬ In Indonesia, students ranging from Kindergarten to High School have PE integrated with their curriculum.Kindergarten until Grade 3 of Elementary students have gymnastics, starting from Grade 4 of Elementary School, students will be introduced into traditional martial arts Pencak Silat and some team games such as badminton, tennis, soccer, futsal, rounders, basketball, etc. Starting from Junior High School, Both gender are separated during PE class. PE find its place in extracurricular forms, where students can specialize themself in one kind of sports they choose. Sport Festival can be held during vacuum period, usually after examination.At this time students can compete each other by bringing own class' flag. Some universities such as ITB include PE in curriculum for freshmen Some countries include Martial Artstraining in school as part of Physical Education class. These Filipino children are doing karate. In the Philippines, some schools have integrated martial arts t raining into their Physical Education curriculum.  In England, pupils are expected to do two hours of PE a week in Year 7, 8 and 9 and at least 1 in year 10 and 11.  In Wales, pupils are expected to do only one hour of PE per fortnight. 14] In Poland, pupils are expected to do at least three hours of PE a week during primary and secondary education.  Universities must also organise at least 60 hours of physical education classes at undergraduate courses.  In India, Physical Education is an important subject in schools. Many students chose Physical Education as a subject against Language Subject Like English, French, some time official language Hindi and some time local languages like Punjabi, because it is very scoring subject and very interesting. Assignments on Physical education increase the interest in Sports.Educational Bodies in India like Central Board of Secondary Education and Punjab School Education Board are in those which conduct examination on Physical Education in affiliated schools and collages. Adapted physical education Main article: Adapted Physical Education Adapted Physical Education or APE, is a sub-discipline and self-control of physical education, focusing on inclusion and students with special needs. Physical fitness comprises two related concepts: general fitness (a state of health and well-being), and specific fitness (a task-oriented definition based on the ability to perform specific aspects ofsports or occupations).Physical fitness is generally achieved through correct nutrition, exercise, and enough rest. Contents [hide] 1 Definitions 2 Fitness 3 Training 4 Menopause and Physical Fitness 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links Definitions Physical fitness has been defined as a set of attributes or characteristics that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. The above definition from Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Su rgeon General is the most common currently used definition of physical fitness.It was originally used by Caspersen and has been used extensively. An alternative definition by Howley and Frank that provides additional descriptive information is: Physical fitness is a state of well-being with low risk of premature health problems and energy to participate in a variety of physical activities. While either is a good definition, most experts agree that physical fitness is both multidimensional and hierarchical. In previous years[when? ], fitness was commonly defined as the capacity to carry out the dayÃ¢â¬â¢s activities without undue fatigue.However, as automation increased leisure time, changes in lifestyles following the industrial revolution rendered this definition insufficient. In current contexts, physical fitness is considered a measure of the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseas es, and to meet emergency situations.  Fitness A US marine performing fitness exercises. The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Ã¢â¬â a study group sponsored by thegovernment of the United StatesÃ¢â¬âdeclines to offer a simple definition of physical fitness.Instead, it developed the following chart: Health relatedSkill relatedSports Metabolic Morphological Bone integrity OtherBody composition Cardiovascular fitness Flexibility Muscular endurance Muscle strength Agility Balance Coordination Power Speed Reaction time OtherTeam sport Individual sport Lifetime Other A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual will probably focus on one or more specific skills, and on age- or health-related needs such as bone health.  Many sourcesalso cite mental, social and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness.This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emo tional, and mental fitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging.  Working out can also help people sleep better. To stay healthy it is important to engage in physical activity.  Training Specific or task-oriented fitness is a person's ability to perform in a specific activity with a reasonable efficiency: for example, sports ormilitary service. Specific training prepares athletes to perform well in their sports.Examples are: 100 m sprint: in a sprint the athlete must be trained to work anaerobically throughout the race. Marathon: in this case the athlete must be trained to work aerobically and their endurance must be built-up to a maximum. Many fire fighters and police officers undergo regular fitness testing to determine if they are capable of the physically demanding tasks required of the job.  Soldiers of the United States Army must be able to pass the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) .  Hill sprints, this training requires a level of fitness to begin with, the exercise is particularly good for the leg muscles.The army often trains doing mountain climbing and races. Menopause and Physical Fitness The menopausal period in women is frequently associated with many subjective complaints including vasomotor symptoms, sleep disturbance, alteration in mood, lowered libido, and musculoskeletal pain. All of these symptoms could lead to a lower quality of life. Physical Fitness has the ability to alleviate or even eliminate the effect of most of these. Women experiencing their menopausal period should engage in regular exercise in order to achieve better physical fitness. Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Federation Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG). Each country has its own national governin g body affiliated to FIG. Competitive artistic gymnastics is the best known of the gymnastic sports. It typically involves the women's events of uneven bars, balance beam, floor exercise, and vault. Men's events are floor exercise, pommel horse, still rings, vault, parallel bars, and high bar.Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks, that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse, and from circus performance skills. Other gymnastic disciplines include: trampolining, tumbling, rhythmic gymnastics,aerobic gymnastics and acrobatic gymnastics. Participants can include children as young as four years old doing kindergym and children's gymnastics, recreational gymnasts of ages 5 and up, competitive gymnasts at varying levels of skill, and world class athletes. Contents [hide] 1 Etymology 2 History 3 Forms 4 Artistic gymnastics 4. 1 Events for women . 2 Events for men 4. 3 Rhythmic gymnastics 4. 4 Trampolining and tumbling 4. 5 Acrobatic gymnastics 4. 6 Aerob ic gymnastics 4. 7 TeamGym 4. 8 Display gymnastics 5 Former apparatus and events 5. 1 Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) 5. 2 Rope climb 5. 3 Flying rings 6 Popular culture 6. 1 Film 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Etymology The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective (gymnos) meaning Ã¢â¬Å"nakedÃ¢â¬ , by way of the related verb (gymnazo), whose meaning is Ã¢â¬Å"to train nakedÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"train in gymnastic exerciseÃ¢â¬ , generally Ã¢â¬Å"to train, to exerciseÃ¢â¬ . 2] The verb had this meaning, because athletes exercised and competed without clothing History 1908 Summer Olympics in London: Display of the British women's gymnastics team Exercises of the ancient Greeks began with athletic feats performed by each individual according to his own notion. The youth were encouraged to combine amusement with exercise. In time, this kind of exercise was incorporated into a system that figured prominently in the state regulations for education. In fact, the period for exercise or gymnastics was equal to the time spent on art and music combined. 3] All Greek cities had a gymnasium, a courtyard for jumping, running, and wrestling. The term included stretching exercises and warm-up preparations for athletes (from the Greek athlete athlos, which means Ã¢â¬Å"struggleÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"fightÃ¢â¬ ). These tests were based on military exercises. As the Roman Empire ascended, the Greek gymnastics gave way to gymnastics whose purpose was military training. The Romans, for example, introduced the wooden horse. In AD 393 the Emperor Theodosius abolished the Olympic Games, which by then had become corrupt, and gymnastics, along with other sports, declined. For centuries, gymnastics was all but forgotten. 4] In the year 1569, Girolamo Mercuriale from Forli (Italy) wrote Le Arte Gymnastica, that brought together his study of the attitudes of the ancients toward diet, exercise and hygiene, and the use of natural methods for the cure of dis ease. De Arte Gymnastica also explained the principles of physical therapy and is considered the first book on sports medicine. In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Germany, three pioneer physical educators Ã¢â¬â Johann Friedrich GutsMuths (1759Ã¢â¬â1839) and Friedrich Ludwig Jahn (1778Ã¢â¬â1852) Ã¢â¬â created exercises for boys and young men on apparatus they had esigned that ultimately led to what is considered modern gymnastics. Don Francisco Amoros y Ondeano, marquis de Sotelo, was born on February 19, 1770 in Valence and died on August 8, 1848 in Paris. He was a Spanish colonel, and the first person to introduce educative gymnastic in France. In particular, Jahn crafted early models of the horizontal bar, the parallel bars (from a horizontal ladder with the rungs removed), and the vaulting horse.  The Federation of International Gymnastics (FIG) was founded in Liege in 1881. 5] By the end of the nineteenth century, men's gymnastics competition was popular enough to be included in the first Ã¢â¬Å"modernÃ¢â¬ Olympic Games in 1896. From then on until the early 1950s, both national and international competitions involved a changing variety of exercises gathered under the rubric, gymnastics, that would seem strange to today's audiences and that included for example, synchronized team floor calisthenics, rope climbing, high jumping, running, and horizontal ladder. During the 1920s, women organized and participated in gymnastics events.The first women's Olympic competition was primitive, for it involved only synchronized calisthenics, was held at the 1928 Games, in Amsterdam. By 1954, Olympic Games apparatus and events for both men and women had been standardized in modern format, and uniform grading structures (including a point system from 1 to 15) had been agreed upon. At this time, Soviet gymnasts astounded the world with highly disciplined and difficult performances, setting a precedent that continues. The new medium of tel evision helped publicize and initiate a modern age of gymnastics.Both men's and women's gymnastics now attract considerable international interest, and excellent gymnasts can be found on every continent. Nadia Comaneci received the first perfect score, at the 1976 Summer Olympics held inMontreal, Canada. She was coached in Romania by the Romanian coach, (Hungarian ethnicity), Bela Karolyi. Comaneci scored four of her perfect tens on the uneven bars, two on the balance beam and one in the floor exercise.  Even with Nadia's perfect scores, the Romanians lost the gold medal to the Soviet Union.Nevertheless, Comaneci became an Olympic icon. In 2006, a new points system for Artistic gymnastics was put into play. With an A Score (or D score) being the difficulty score, which as of 2009 is based on the top 8 high scoring elements in a routine (excluding Vault). The B Score (or E Score), is the score for execution, and is given for how well the skills are performed.  Forms Aerob ic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of relatively low intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. 1] Aerobic literally means Ã¢â¬Å"living in airÃ¢â¬ , and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism.  Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobicmetabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.  Contents [hide] 1 Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise 2 Aerobic capacity 3 Criticisms 4 Commercial success 5 Varieties of aerobic (cardiovascular) exercise 5. 1 Indoor 5. 2 Outdoor . 3 Indoor or outdoor 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links Aerobic versus anaerobic exercise This section needs additional citations for verification. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2011) Fox and Haskell formula showing the split between aerobic (light orange) and anaerobic (dark orange) exercise and heart rate.Aerobic exercise and fitness can be contrasted with anaerobic exercise, of which strength training and short-distance running are the most salient examples. The two types of exercise differ by the duration and intensity of muscular contractions involved, as well as by how energy is generated within the muscle. In most conditions, anaerobic exercise occurs simultaneously with aerobic exercises because the less efficient anaerobic metabolism must supplement the aerobic system due to energy demands that exceed the aerobic system's capacity.What is generally called aerobic exercise might be better termed Ã¢â¬Å"solely aerobicÃ¢â¬ , because it is designed to be low-intensity enough not to generate lactate via pyruvate fermentation, so that all carbohydrate is aerobically turned into energy. Initially during increased exertion, muscle glycogen is broken down to produce glucose, which undergoes glycolysis producing pyruvate which then reacts with oxygen (Krebs cycle) to produce carbon dioxide and water and releasing energy.If there is a shortage of oxygen (anaerobic exercise, explosive movements), carbohydrate is consumed more rapidly because the pyruvate ferments into lactate. If the intensity of the exercise exceeds the rate with which the cardiovascular system can supply muscles with oxygen, it results in buildup of lactate and quickly makes it impossible to continue the exercise. Unpleasant effects of lactate buildup initially include the burning sensation in the muscles, and may eventually include nausea and even vomiting if the exercise is continued without allowing lactate to clear from the bloodstream.As glycogen levels in the muscle begin to fall, glucose is released into the bloodstream by the liver, and fat metabolism is increased so that it can fuel the aerobic pathways. Aerobic exercise may be fueled by glycogen reserves, fat reserves, or a combination of both, depending on the intensity. Prolonged moderate-level aerobic exercise at 65% VO2 max (the heart rate of 150 bpm for a 30-year-old human) results in the maximum absolute contribution of fat to the total energy expenditure. At this level, fat may contribute 40% to 60% of total, depending on the duration of the exercise.Vigorous exercise above 75% VO2max (160 bpm) primarily burns glycogen.  Major muscles in a rested, untrained human typically contain enough energy for about 2 hours of vigorous exercise. Exhaustion of glycogen is a major cause of what marathon runners call Ã¢â¬Å"hitting the wallÃ¢â¬ . Training, lower intensity levels, and carbohydrate loading may allow to postpone the onset exhaustion beyond 4 hours.  Aerobic exercise comprises innumerable forms. In general, it is performed at a moderate level of intensity over a relatively long period of time. For example, running a long distance at a oderate pace is an aero bic exercise, but sprinting is not. Playing singles tennis, with near-continuous motion, is generally considered aerobic activity, while golf or two person team tennis, with brief bursts of activity punctuated by more frequent breaks, may not be predominantly aerobic. Some sports are thus inherently Ã¢â¬Å"aerobicÃ¢â¬ , while other aerobic exercises, such as fartlek training or aerobic dance classes, are designed specifically to improve aerobic capacity and fitness. It is most common for aerobic exercises to involve the leg muscles, primarily or exclusively. There are some exceptions.For example,rowing to distances of 2,000 m or more is an aerobic sport that exercises several major muscle groups, including those of the legs, abdominals, chest, and arms. Common kettlebell exercises combine aerobic and anaerobic aspects. Among the recognized benefits of doing regular aerobic exercise are: Strengthening the muscles involved in respiration, to facilitate the flow of air in and out of the lungs Strengthening and enlarging the heart muscle, to improve its pumping efficiency and reduce the resting heart rate, known as aerobic conditioning Strengthening muscles throughout the bodyImproving circulation efficiency and reducing blood pressure Increasing the total number of red blood cells in the body, facilitating transport of oxygen Improved mental health, including reducing stress and lowering the incidence of depression Reducing the risk for diabetes. Burns body fat, while building leaner muscle. As a result, aerobic exercise can reduce the risk of death due to cardiovascular problems. In addition, high-impact aerobic activities (such as jogging or using a skipping rope) can stimulate bone growth, as well as reduce the risk of osteoporosis for both men and women.In addition to the health benefits of aerobic exercise, there are numerous performance benefits: Increased storage of energy molecules such as fats and carbohydrates within the muscles, allowing for increase d endurance Neovascularization of the muscle sarcomeres to increase blood flow through the muscles Increasing speed at which aerobic metabolism is activated within muscles, allowing a greater portion of energy for intense exercise to be generated aerobically Improving the ability of muscles to use fats during xercise, preserving intramuscular glycogen Enhancing the speed at which muscles recover from high intensity exercise Both the health benefits and the performance benefits, or Ã¢â¬Å"training effectÃ¢â¬ , require a minimum duration and frequency of exercise. Most authorities suggest at least twenty minutes performed at least three times per week.  Aerobic capacity Main article: VO2 max Aerobic capacity describes the functional capacity of the cardiorespiratory system, (the heart, lungs and blood vessels).Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise.  It is a function both of cardiorespiratory performance and the maximum ability to remove and utilize oxygen from circulating blood. To measure maximal aerobic capacity, an exercise physiologist or physician will perform a VO2 max test, in which a subject will undergo progressively more strenuous exercise on a treadmill, from an easy walk through to exhaustion.The individual is typically connected to a respirometer to measure oxygen consumption, and the speed is increased incrementally over a fixed duration of time. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles, and the higher the level of intensity at which the individual can exercise. More simply stated, the higher the aerobic capacity, the higher the level of aerobic fitness. The Cooper and multi-stage fitness tests can also be used to assess functional aerobic capacity for particular jobs or activities.The degree to which aerobic capacity can be improved by exercise varie s very widely in the human population: while the average response to training is an approximately 17% increase in VO2max, in any population there are Ã¢â¬Å"high respondersÃ¢â¬ who may as much as double their capacity, and Ã¢â¬Å"low respondersÃ¢â¬ who will see little or no benefit from training.  Studies indicate that approximately 10% of otherwise healthy individuals cannot improve their aerobic capacity with exercise at all.  The degree of an individual's responsiveness is highly heritable, suggesting that this trait is genetically determined. 8] An aerobics class. This article is about the type of exercise. For the exercise physiology topic, see Aerobic exercise. Aerobics is a form of physical exercise that combines rhythmic aerobic exercise with stretchingand strength training routines with the goal of improving all elements of fitness (flexibility,muscular strength, and cardio-vascular fitness). It is usually performed to music and may be practiced in a group setti ng led by an instructor (fitness professional), although it can be done solo and without musical accompaniment.With the goal of preventing illness and promotingphysical fitness, practitioners perform various routines comprising a number of different dance-like exercises. Formal aerobics classes are divided into different levels of intensity and complexity. Aerobics classes may allow participants to select their level of participation according to their fitness level. Many gyms offer a variety of aerobic classes. Each class is designed for a certain level of experience and taught by a certified instructor with a specialty area related to their particular class. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Aerobic gymnastics 3 See also 4 References edit]History Both the term and the specific exercise method were developed by Dr. Kenneth Cooper, M. D. , an exercise physiologist, and Col. Pauline Potts, a physical therapist, both of the United States Air Force. Dr. Cooper, an avowed exercise enthusiast, was personally and professionally puzzled about why some people with excellent muscular strength were still prone to poor performance at tasks such as long-distance running, swimming, and bicycling. He began measuring systematic human performance using a bicycle ergometer, and began measuring sustained performance in terms of a person's ability to use oxygen.His groundbreaking book, Aerobics, was published in 1968, and included scientific exercise programs using running, walking, swimming and bicycling. The book came at a fortuitous historical moment, when increasing weakness and inactivity in the general population was causing a perceived need for increased exercise. Aerobic gymnastics Aerobic gymnastics, also known as sport aerobics and competitive aerobics, is a type of competitive aerobics involving complicatedchoreography, rhythmic and acrobatic gymnastics with elements of aerobics. 1] Performance is divided into categories by age, sex and groups (individual, mixed pairs and trios) and are judged on the following elements: dynamic and static strength, jumps and leaps, kicks, balance and flexibility. Ten exercises are mandatory: four consecutive high leg kicks, patterns. A maximum of ten elements from following families are allowed: push-ups, supports and balances, kicks and splits, jumps and leaps. Elements of tumbling such ashandsprings, handstands, back flips, and aerial somersaults are prohibited. Scoring is by judging of artistic quality, creativity, execution, and difficulty of routines.Sport aerobics has state, national, and international competitions, but is not an Olympic sport. Artistic gymnastics Main article: Artistic gymnastics Artistic gymnastics is usually divided into Men's and Women's Gymnastics. Typically men compete on six events: Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Still Rings, Vault, Parallel Bars, and High Bar, while women compete on four: Vault, Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, and Floor Exercise. In some countries, women at one tim e competed on the rings, high bar, and parallel bars (for example, in the 1950s in the USSR).Though routines performed on each event may be short, they are physically exhausting and push the gymnast's strength, flexibility, endurance and awareness to the limit. In 2006, FIG introduced a new points system for Artistic gymnastics in which scores are no longer limited to 10 points. The system is used in the US for elite level competition.  Unlike the old code of points, there are two separate scores. An execution score and a difficulty score. In the previous system, the Ã¢â¬Å"execution scoreÃ¢â¬ was the only score. It was and still is out of 10. 00.During the gymnast's performance, the judges deduct from this score only. A fall, on or off the event, is a 1. 00 deduction, in elite level gymnastics. The introduction of the difficulty score is a significant change. The gymnast's difficulty score is based on what elements they perform and is subject to change if they do not perform or complete all the skills, or they do not connect a skill meant to be connected to another. Connection bonuses are the most common deduction from a difficulty score, as it can be difficult to connect multiple flight elements.It is very hard to connect skills if the first skill is not performed correctly. The new code of points allows the gymnasts to gain higher scores based on the difficulty of the skills they perform as well as their execution. Events for women Piked Tsukahara vault. Vault In the vaulting events gymnasts sprint down a 25 metres (82 ft) runway, jump onto or perform a roundoff entry onto a springboard (run/ take-off segment), land momentarily, inverted on the hands on the vaulting horse or vaulting table (pre flight segment), then spring off of this platform to a two footed landing (post flight segment).Every gymnast starts at a different point on the vault runway depending on their height and strength. The post flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos or somersaults, and/or twisting movements. Round-off entry vaults are the most common vaults in elite level gymnastics. In vaults with roundoff entries, gymnasts Ã¢â¬Å"round-offÃ¢â¬ so hands are on the runway while the feet land on the springboard (beatboard). From the roundoff position the gymnast travels backwards as in a backhandspring so that the hands land on the vaulting platform (horse).She then blocks off the vaulting platform into various twisting and/or somersaulting combinations. The post flight segment brings the gymnast to her feet. In 2001, the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus, sometimes known as a tongue or table. The new apparatus is more stable, wider, and longer than the older vaulting horseÃ¢â¬âapproximately 1m in length and 1m in widthÃ¢â¬âgiving gymnasts a larger blocking surface, and is therefore considered safer than the old vaulting horse. With the addition of this new, safer vaulting table, gymnasts are attempting more difficult and dangerous vaults. 8] Gymnast on uneven bars. Uneven Bars On the uneven bars (also known as asymmetric bars, UK), the gymnast performs a routine on two horizontal bars set at different heights. These bars are made of fiberglass covered in wood laminate, to prevent them from breaking. In the past, bars were made of wood, but the bars were prone to breaking, providing an incentive to switch to newer technologies. The width of the bars may be adjusted. Gymnasts perform swinging, circling, transitional, and release moves, that may pass over, under, and between the two bars.Movements may pass through the handstand. Gymnasts often mount the Uneven Bars using a springboard. Balance Beam The gymnast performs a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, somersaults, turns and dance elements on a padded beam. The beam is 125 centimetres (4 ft 1 in) from the ground, 500 centimetres (16 ft 5 in) long, and 10 centimetres (3. 9 in) w ide.  The event requires, in particular, balance, flexibility, poise and strength. Gymnast doing a stag leap on floor exercise. FloorIn the past, the Floor Exercise event was executed on the bare floor or mats such as wrestling mats. Today, the floor event occurs on a carpeted 12m ? 12m square, usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of plywood, which is supported by springs or foam blocks generally called a Ã¢â¬Å"springÃ¢â¬ floor. This provides a firm surface that provides extra bounce or spring when compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve extra height and a softer landing than would be possible on a standard floor. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in the Floor Exercise event.They must choose an accompanying music piece. In some gymnastic associations such as United States Association of Gymnastic Clubs (USAIGC), gymnasts are allowed to have vocals in their music but USA Gymnastics competitions a large deduction is taken from the score for having vocals in the music. , The routine should consist of tumbling lines, series of jumps, dance elements, acrobatic skills, and turns, or piviots, on one foot. A gymnast can perform up to four tumbling lines that usually includes at least one flight element without hand support.Each level of gymnastics requires the athlete to perform a different number of tumbling passes. In level 7 in the United states, a gymnast is required to do 2Ã¢â¬â3, and in levels 8Ã¢â¬â10, at least 3Ã¢â¬â4 tumbling passes are required.  Scoring: A gymnast's score comes from deductions taken from their start value. The start value of a routine is calculated based on the difficulty of the elements the gymnast attempts and whether or not the gymnast meets composition requirements. The composition requirements are different for each apparatus.This score is called the D score.  Deductions in execution and artistry are taken from 10. 0. This score is called the E score.  The final score is calculated by taking deductions from the E score, and adding the result to the D score.  And since 2007, the scoring system has changed by adding bonus plus the execution and then adding those two together to get the final score. Events for men Floor Male gymnasts also perform on a 12m. by 12m. spring floor. A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance.The gymnast must also show strength skills, including circles, scales, and press handstands. Men's floor routines usually have four passes that will total between 60Ã¢â¬â70 seconds and are performed without music, unlike the women's event. Rules require that male gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine. A boy on the pommel horse Pommel Horse A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work. Single leg skills are generally found in the form of scissors, an element often done on the pommels. Double leg work howe ver, is the main staple of this event.The gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise depending on preference) and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. To make the exercise more challenging, gymnasts will often include variations on a typical circling skill by turning (moores and spindles) or by straddling their legs (Flares). Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse, or landing after a handstand. Still Rings The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5. 75 meters from the floor, and adjusted in height so the gymnast has room to hang freely and swing.He must perform a routine demonstrating balance, strength, power, and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging. At least one static strength move is required, but some gymnasts may include two or three. A routine should have a dismount equal in difficulty to the difficulty of the routine as a whole. Vaul t Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a maximum of 25 meters in length, before hurdling onto a spring board. The body position is maintained while Ã¢â¬Å"punchingÃ¢â¬ (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position.In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing. Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness in the air, and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults. Parallel Bars Men perform on two bars slightly further than a shoulder's width apart and usually 1. 75m high while executing a series of swings, balances, and releases that require great strength and coordination. High Bar A 2. 8 cm thick steel or fiberglass bar raised 2. m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giants(revolutions around the bar), release skills, twists, and changes of direction. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point, enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts, such as a triple-back salto. Leather gripsare usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar. As with the women, male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events, for their execution, degree of difficulty, and overall presentation skills. Rhythmic gymnastics Irina Tchachina, Russian rhythmic gymnastMain article: Rhythmic gymnastics Only women compete in rhythmic gymnastics although there is a new version of this discipline for men being pioneered in Japan (see Men's rhythmic gymnastics). This is a sport that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance, and apparatus manipulation. The sport involves the performance of five separate routines with the use of five apparatusÃ¢â¬âball, ribbon, hoop, clubs, ropeÃ¢â¬âon a floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. There are also group routines consisting of 5 gymnasts and 5 apparatuses of their choice.Rhythmic routines are scored out of a possible 30 points; the score for artistry (choreography and music) is averaged with the score for difficulty of the moves and then added to the score for execution.  International competitions are split between Juniors, under sixteen by their year of birth; and Seniors, for women sixteen and over again by their year of birth. Gymnasts in Russia and Europe typically start training at a very young age and those at their peak are typically in their late teens (15Ã¢â¬â19) or early twenties. The largest events in the sport are the Olympic Games, World Championships, World Cup and Grand-Prix Tournaments. edit]Trampolining and tumbling Double mini-trampoline competitor Main articles: Trampolining and Tumbling (gymnastics) Trampolining and tumbling consists of four events, individual and synchronized trampoline, double mi ni trampoline, and tumbling (also known as power tumbling or rod floor). Since 2000, individual trampoline has been included in the Olympic Games. Individual routines in trampolining involve a build-up phase during which the gymnast jumps repeatedly to achieve height, followed by a sequence of ten leaps without pauses during which the gymnast performs a sequence of aerial skills.Routines are marked out of a maximum score of 10 points. Additional points (with no maximum at the highest levels of competition) can be earned depending on the difficulty of the moves and the length of time taken to complete the ten skills which is an indication of the average height of the jumps. In high level competitions, there are two preliminary routines, one which has only two moves scored for difficulty and one where the athlete is free to perform any routine. This is followed by a final routine which is optional. Some competitions restart the score from zero for the finals, other ad d the final score to the preliminary results.Synchronized trampoline is similar except that both competitors must perform the routine together and marks are awarded for synchronization as well as the form and difficulty of the moves. Double mini trampoline involves a smaller trampoline with a run-up, two moves are performed per routine. Moves cannot be repeated in the same place on the double-mini during a competition. Skills can be repeated if a skill is thrown as a mounter in one routine and a dismount in another. The scores are marked in a similar manner to individual trampoline.In tumbling, athletes perform an explosive series of flips and twists down a sprung tumbling track. Scoring is similar to trampolining. Acrobatic gymnastics Acrobatic Women's Pair performing a skill. Main article: Acrobatic gymnastics Acrobatic gymnastics (formerly Sport Acrobatics), often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"AcroÃ¢â¬ if involved with the sport, acrobatic sports or simply sports acro, is a grou p gymnastic discipline for both men and women. Acrobats in groups of two, three and four perform routines with the heads, hands and feet of their partners. They may, subject to regulations (e. g. no lyrics), pick their own music.Throughout the world, there at three FIG levels: Age group (Age 11-16), Junior(12-19) and Senior (15+), which are used in the World Championships and many other events around the world, including European Championships and World Games. All levels require a balance and dynamic routine, Junior and Seniors are also required to perform a final (combined) routine. Currently acrobatic gymnastics is marked out of 30. 00 (can be higher at Senior FIG level based on difficulty): 10. 00 for routine difficulty, (valued from the tables of difficulties) 10. 00 For technical performance, (how well the skills are executed) 10. 0 For Artistry, (the overall performance of the routine, namely choreography) Aerobic gymnastics Main article: Aerobic gymnastics Aerobic gymna stics (formally Sport Aerobics) involves the performance of routines by individuals, pairs, trios or groups up to 6 people, emphasizing strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness rather than acrobatic or balance skills. Routines are performed for all individuals on a 7x7m floor and also for 12Ã¢â¬â14 and 15Ã¢â¬â17 trios and mixed pairs. From 2009, all senior trios and mixed pairs were required to be on the larger floor (10x10m), all groups also perform on this floor.Routines generally last 60Ã¢â¬â90 seconds depending on age of participant and routine category. TeamGym TeamGym (also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Gymnastics for AllÃ¢â¬ ) has it origins in earliest times. These days, although teams can compete the sport itself was developed to enhance fitness and health in the participants and is accessible to anyone of any age. In 1984 Gymnastics for All was officially recognized first as a Sport Program by the FIG (International Gymnastic Federation), and subsequently by national gymnastic federations world wide with participants that now number 30 million.  Floor ProgrammeAll members of the Team take part in the floor program, composed of a mixture of dance, flexibility and skill. The routine has to be skillfully choreographed and the judges look out for changes in shape. There needs to be at least two spins, two balances and two section elements. These section elememts are bodywaves for women's teams, power elements for men's teams and lifts for mixed teams. Floor routines are performed to music. Trampette Here a trampette is used. There are two components of this; Vault and the Trampette on its own. There has to be three runs in total. At least one of these runs has to be a vault run.Another run has to include all the gymnasts doing the same move. This is generally the first run. This is also performed to music. Tumbling Again, here there are three runs (rounds) involved. One of which has to include all six gymnasts doing a forwards series. Another ru n also has to include the gymnasts completing the same move. Each series must have at least three different acrobatic elements.  Display gymnastics General gymnastics enables people of all ages and abilities to participate in performance groups of 6 to more than 150 athletes. They perform synchronized, choreographed routines. Troupes may be all one gender or mixed.There are no age divisions in general gymnastics. The largest general gymnastics exhibition is the quadrennial World Gymnaestrada which was first held in 1939. Former apparatus and events Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) Starting in 2011, the rhythmic apparatus rope will be removed from all FIG events and clubs will be returned to the competition. FIG has a policy of only using four of the five pieces of apparatus and changes them for different Olympic cycles. This will affect World Cups, World Championships, and Olympics. Rope climb Main article: Rope climbing Generally, competitors climbed either a 6m (6. m = 20 ft in USA) or an 8m (7. 6m = 25 ft in USA), 38mm (1. 5Ã¢â¬ ³) diameter natural fiber rope for speed, starting from a seated position on the floor and using only the hands and arms. Kicking the legs in a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"strideÃ¢â¬ was normally permitted. Many gymnasts can do this in the straddle or pike position, which eliminates the help generated from the legs. Flying rings Main article: Flying rings Flying rings was an event similar to still rings, but with the performer executing a series of stunts while swinging. It was a gymnastic event sanctioned by both the NCAA and the AAU until the early 1960s.